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Stock Market Explained - Money Matrix with Micky Tesfaye & Sebuh Mesfin

In this episode of Money Matrix, hosts Micky Tesfaye and Sebuh Mesfin delve into the intriguing world of the stock market, providing a detailed overview of its historical roots, major milestones, and global dynamics. They navigate through the evolution of stock markets, touching upon key events and developments, including the creation of the first modern stock market in Amsterdam and the formation of iconic exchanges like the New York Stock Exchange and Nasdaq.

Historical Evolution of Stock Markets

The hosts Micky Tesfaye and Sebuh Mesfin kick off with a historical segment, emphasising that the concept of stock markets didn't always exist. The first stock market originated in the late 1400s in modern-day Belgium, driven by merchants anticipating profit from rising prices. The modern stock trading system was born in Amsterdam with the Dutch East India Company becoming the first publicly traded company. The Buttonwood Tree Agreement in the late 1700s laid the foundation for the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), and by 1896, the Dow Jones Industrial Average was introduced. The hosts also discuss the inception of the S&P 500 and its evolution into tracking the 500 largest stocks by market capitalization in the US.

Major Market Events

They explore significant events that shaped stock market history, such as the 1929 US stock market crash leading to the Great Depression, the establishment of the Nasdaq in 1971, and the 2008 stock market crash triggered by the housing market boom and bust. They also highlight the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the stock market in 2020, emphasizing its decline and subsequent rebound.

Global Geography of Stock Markets

Micky and Sebuh explore the diverse geography of stock markets, noting that stock exchanges exist worldwide, from Europe (London, Frankfurt, Paris) to Asia (Hong Kong, Tokyo), and even emerging markets like Ethiopia. They discuss the growing trend of countries establishing their stock markets, citing Jamaica as an example of a rapidly expanding market for high-growth companies.

Credits: Masters Trade (
Credits: Masters Trade (

Listing on Stock Exchanges

The conversation shifts to the motivations behind companies going public and listing on stock exchanges. They draw parallels with venture capital funding, explaining that going public allows companies to sell a stake for immediate capital, enabling sustained growth. Using the example of Arm, a British company planning to list in the US, the hosts explore the strategic reasons behind listing in specific markets, emphasizing the attraction of the US market due to its liquidity, investor base, and higher valuations.

Short Selling and Stock Market Dynamics

The hosts demystify short selling, a unique aspect of stock markets, where investors bet against a company's performance. Short sellers borrow stocks, anticipating a price drop, enabling them to buy back at a lower price and profit from the difference. The discussion extends to the role of short sellers in maintaining market efficiency and weeding out fraudulent practices.

Conspiracy Theories and Market Perceptions

The hosts touch upon the role of perception and confidence in the stock market, highlighting the vulnerability of companies to rapid value changes based on public sentiment. They delve into the GameStop saga and meme stocks, showcasing how social media can influence market dynamics and lead to short squeezes, where short sellers face significant losses due to unexpected stock price increases.


In conclusion, Micky and Sebuh provide a nuanced exploration of the stock market, from its historical roots to modern complexities. They shed light on the global nature of stock exchanges, the strategic decisions behind company listings, and the dynamic interplay of market forces. The episode wraps up by acknowledging the stock market's intriguing mix of historical significance, financial strategies, and the impact of perception on market dynamics.


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